Partial or complete loss of consciousness with interruption of awareness of oneself and ones surroundings. When the loss of consciousness is temporary and there is spontaneous recovery, it is referred to as syncope & it’s also know as fainting. Syncope is due to a temporary reduction in blood flow(cerebral ischemia) and therefore a shortage of oxygen to the brain. 
-Lack of strength with sensation of impending loss of consciousness.
-Increased light headedness,blurring of vision, heaviness of lower limbs.

  Human Brain photo

Vasovagal syncope:
-It’s reflex through vagus, causes marked fall in arterial pressure & peripheral vascular resistance.
It can causes for emotional stress,fear,warm,over crowded space, pain, mild blood loss, fever etc.
-Clinical feature includes nausea, sweating, epigastric distress, tachypnoea, weakness & confusion. This followed by faintness, pallor, chillness of hand & feet, loss of blood pressure. Tachycardia during initial phase & later it causes bradycardia with Low blood pressure & weak pulse rate.  
Cardiac Syncope:
-Its due to sudden reduction of blood circulation in cardiac output. It can cause because of heart beat is so low Or fast Or not beating. 
-Common cause of this is Complete heart block, sick sinus syndrome, Proximal trachycardias, Aortic stenosis, Myocardial infarction, Pulmonary embolism, Myxoma, Primary Pulmonary hypertension, severe Blood loss, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy etc.  
Orthostactic Syncope:
This occur suddenly when a person gets up from lying down position or stands for long time.  
Drug Induced Syncope:
Some drugs can cause the symptoms of syncope. Example. Diuretics, Angiotensin converging enzyme, Nitrates, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blocker etc.
Due to Cerebrovascular disease: 
Miscellaneous cause: 
-Vagal & Glossopharyngial neuralgia.
-Carotid sinus syndrom etc.


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